Where ๐Ÿ‘ do ๐Ÿ‘ the ๐Ÿ‘ claps ๐Ÿ‘ go ๐Ÿ‘ when ๐Ÿ‘ you ๐Ÿ‘ write ๐Ÿ‘ like ๐Ÿ‘ this ๐Ÿ‘?

You may already be familiar with the phenomena I’m going to be talking about today: when someone punctuates some text with the clap emoji. It’s a pretty transparent gestural scoring and (for me) immediately brings to mind the way my mom would clap with every word when she was particularly exasperated with my sibling and I (it was usually along with speech like “let’s go, let’s go, let’s go” or “get up now”). It looks like so:

This innovation, which started on Black Twitterย is really interesting to me because it ties in with my earlier work on emoji ordering. I want to know where emojis go, particularly in relation to other words. Especially since people have since extended this usage to other emoji, like the US Flag:

Logically, there are several different ways you can intersperse clap emojis with text:

  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ ย are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ between ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word.
  • ย ๐Ÿ‘ Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ around ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word. ๐Ÿ‘
  • ย ๐Ÿ‘ Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ before ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word.
  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ after ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word. ๐Ÿ‘
  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ areย used ๐Ÿ‘ย between phrases ๐Ÿ‘ย not words

I want to know which of these best describes what people actually do. I’m not aiming to write an internet style guide, but I am hoping to characterize this phenomena in a general way: this is howย mostย people who do this do it, and if you want to use this style in a natural way, you should probably do it the same way.

Data

I used Fireant to grab 10,000 tweets from the Twitter streaming API which had the clap emoji in them at least once. (Twitter doesn’t let you search for a certain number of matches of the same string. If you search for “blob” and “blob blob” you’ll get the same set of results.)

Analysis

From that set of 10,000 tweets, I took only the tweets that had a clap emoji followed by a word followed by another clap emoji and threw out any repeats. That left me with 260 tweets. (This may seem pretty small compared to my starting dataset, but there were a lot of retweets in there, and I didn’t want to count anything twice.) Then I removed @usernames, since those show up in the beginning of any tweet that’s a reply to someone, and URL’s, which I don’t really think of as “words”. Finally, I looked at each word in a tweet and marked whether it was a clap or not. You can see the results of that here:

timecourse

The “word” axis represents which word in the tweet we’re looking at: the first, second, third, etc. The red portion of the bar are the words that areย the clap emoji. The yellow portion is the words that aren’t. (BTW, big shoutout to Hadley Wickham’s emo(ji) package for letting me include emoji in plots!)

From this we can see a clear pattern: almost no oneย startsย a tweet with an emoji, but most people follow the first word with an emoji. The up-down-up-down pattern means that people are alternating the clap emoji with one word. So if we look back at our hypotheses about how emoji are used, we can see right off the bat that three of them are wrong:

  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ ย are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ between ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word.
  • ย ๐Ÿ‘ Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ around ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word. ๐Ÿ‘
  • ย ๐Ÿ‘ Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ before ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word.
  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ are ๐Ÿ‘ used ๐Ÿ‘ after ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word. ๐Ÿ‘
  • Claps ๐Ÿ‘ areย used ๐Ÿ‘ย between phrases ๐Ÿ‘ย not words

We can pick between the two remaining hypotheses by looking at whether people are ending thier tweets with a clap emoji.ย As it turns out, the answer is “yes”, more often than not.

endWithClap

If they’re using this clapping-between-words pattern (sometimes called the “ratchet clap“) people are statistically more likely to end their tweet with a clap emoji than with a different word or non-clap emoji. This means the most common pattern is to use ๐Ÿ‘ย a ๐Ÿ‘ย clap ๐Ÿ‘ย after ๐Ÿ‘ every ๐Ÿ‘ word,ย ๐Ÿ‘ย  includingย  ๐Ÿ‘ย theย  ๐Ÿ‘ย last. ๐Ÿ‘

This makes intuitive sense to me. This pattern is mimicking someone is clapping on every word. Since we can’t put emoji on top of words to indicate that they’re happening at the same time, putting them after makes good intuitive sense. In some sense, each emoji is “attached” to the word that comes before it in a similar way to how “quickly” is “attached” to “run” in the phrase “run quickly”. It makes less sense to put emoji betweenย words, becuase then you end up with less claps than words, which doesn’t line up well with the way this is done in speech.

The “clap after every word” pattern is also what this website that automatically puts claps in your tweets does, so I’m pretty positive this is a good characterization of community norms.

 

So there you have it! If you’re going to put clap emoji in your tweets, you should probably do ๐Ÿ‘ย it ๐Ÿ‘ย like ๐Ÿ‘ย this. ๐Ÿ‘ย It’s not wrong if you don’t, but it does look kind of weird.

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Do emojis have their own syntax?

So a while ago I got into a discussion with someone on Twitter about whether emojis have syntax. Their original question was this:

As someone who’s studied sign language, my immediate thought was “Of course there’s a directionality to emoji: they encode the spatial relationships of the scene.” This is just fancy linguist talk for: “if there’s a dog eating a hot-dog, and the dog is on the right, you’re going to use ๐ŸŒญ๐Ÿ•, not ๐Ÿ•๐ŸŒญ.” But the more I thought about it, the more I began to think that maybe it would be better not to rely on my intuitionsย in this case. First, because I know American Sign Language and that might be influencing me and, second, because I am pretty gosh-darn dyslexicย and I can’t promise that my really excellent ability to flip adjacent characters doesn’t extend to emoji.

So, like any good behavioral scientist, I ran a little experiment.ย I wanted to know two things.

  1. Does an emoji description of a scene show the way that things are positioned in that scene?
  2. Does the order of emojis tend to be the same as the ordering of those same concepts in an equivalent sentence?

As it turned out, the answers to these questions are actually fairly intertwined, and related to a third thing I hadn’t actually considered while I was putting together my stimuli (but probably should have): whether there was an agent-patient relationship in the photo.

Agent: The entity in a sentence that’s affecting a changed, the “doer” of the action.

  • The dog ate the hot-dog.
  • Theย raccoonsย pushed over all the trash-bins.

Patient: The entity that’s being changed, the “receiver” of the action.

  • The dog ate the hot-dog.
  • The raccoonsย pushed over all theย trash-bins.

Data

To get data, I showed people three pictures and asked them to “pick the emoji sequence that best describes the scene” and then gave them two options that used different orders of the same emoji. Then, once they were done with the emoji part, I asked them to “please type a short sentence to describe each scene”. For all the language data, I just went through and quickly coded the order that the same concepts as were encoded in the emoji showed up.

Examples:

  • “The dog ate a hot-dog” ย -> dog hot-dog
  • “The hot-dog was eaten by the dog” -> hot-dog dog
  • “A dog eating” -> dog
  • “The hot-dog was completely devoured” -> hot-dog

So this gave me two parallel data sets: one with emojis and one with language data.

All together,ย 133 people filled out the emoji half and 127 people did the whole thing, mostly in English (I had one person respond in Spanish and I went ahead and included it).ย I have absolutely no demographics on my participants, and that’s by design; since I didn’t go through the Institutional Review Board it would actually be unethical for me to collect data about people themselves rather than just general information on language use. (If you want to get into the nitty-gritty this is a really good discussion of different types of on-line research.)

Picture one – A man counting money

Watch, movie schedule, poster, telephone, cashier machine, cash register Fortepan 6680

I picked this photo as sort of a sanity-check: there’s no obvious right-to-left ordering of the man and the money, and there’s one pretty clearย way of describing what’s going on in this scene. There’s anย agent (the man) and a patient (the money), and since we tend to describe things as agent first, patient second I expected people to pretty much all do the same thing with this picture. (Side note: Iย knowย I’ve read a paper about the cross-linguistic tendency for syntactic structures where the agent comes first, but I can’t find it and I don’t remember who it’s by. Please let me know if you’ve got an idea what it could be in the comments–it’s driving me nuts!)

manmoney

And they did! Pretty much everyone described this picture by putting the man before the money, both with emoji and words. This tells us that, when there’s no information about orientation you need to encode (e.g. what’s on theย right or left), people do tend to use emoji in the same order as they would the equivalent words.

Picture two – A man walking by a castle

Chรขteau de Canisy (5)

But now things get a little more complex. What if thereย isn’tย a strong agent-patient relationship and thereย isย a strong orientation in the photo? Here, a man in a red shirtย is walking by a castle, but he shows up on the right side of the photo. Will people be more likely to describe this scene with emoji in a way that encodes the relationship of the objects in the photo?

mancastle

I found that they were–almost four out of five participants described this scene by using the emoji sequence “castle man”, rather than “man castle”. This is particularly striking because, in the sentence writing part of the experiment, most people (over 56%) wrote a sentence where “man/dude/person etc.” showed up before “castle/mansion/chateau etc.”.

So while people can use emoji to encode syntax, they’reย alsoย using them to encode spatial information about the scene.

Picture three – A man photographing a model

Photographing a model

Ok, so let’s add a third layer of complexity: what about when spatial information and the syntactic agent/patient relationships are pointing in opposite directions? For the scene above, if you’re encoding the spatial information then you should use an emoji ordering like “woman camera man”, but if you’re encoding an agent-patient relationship then, as we saw in the picture of the man counting money, you’ll probably want to put the agent first: “man camera woman”.

(I leave it open for discussion whether the camera emoji here is representing a physical camera or a verb like “photograph”.)

mangirlcamera

For this chart I removed some data to make it readable. I kicked out anyone who picked another ordering of the emoji, and any word order that fewer than ten people (e.g. less than 10% of participants) used.

So people were a little more divided here. It wasn’t quite a 50-50 split, but it really does look like you can go either way with this one. The thing that jumped out at me, though, was how the word order and emoji order pattern together: if your sentence is something like “A man photographs a model”, then you are far more likely to use theย “man camera woman” emoji ordering. On the other hand, if your sentence is something like “A woman being photographed by the sea” or “Photoshoot by the water”, then it’s more likely that your emoji ordering described the physical relation of the scene.

So what?

So what’s the big takeaway here? Well, one thing is that emoji don’t really have a fixed syntax in the same way language does. If they did, I’d expect that there would be a lot more agreement between people about the right way to represent a scene with emoji. There was aย lotย of variation.

On the other hand, emoji ordering isn’t just random either. Itย isย encoding information, either about the syntactic/semantic relationship of the concepts or their physical location in space. The problem is that you really don’t have a way of knowing which one is which.

Edit 12/16/2016: The dataset and the R script I used to analyze it are now avaliable on Github.